Ch 5 Essay written by book’s editor Andrzej Korbonski

  • types of interest: military, political, ideological, economic (99)
  • “To be sure, the leaders of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland have paid ceremonial visits to various Third World countries, notably India, Libya, Iraq, and Iran, but otherwise there is no evidence of extensive contacts and what contacts did exist seemed to focus almost entirely on economics” (107)
    • Korbonski seems to imply that the general academic consensus at the time was that Eastern European countries and Third World countries (Hungary included in the former group, India in the latter) did not really interact, and even then their interactions were based purely on economic benefit
    • WHILE this is true in part (considering this period falls before the ‘critical moment’ that I am looking at – which revolves around both countries experiencing waves of economic liberalization) it also ignores some of the bigger ideological sympathies that India and Hungary had already expressed at this time!
  • “The examples of Hungary in 1956, Czechoslovakia in 1968, and Poland in the past thirty years must have persuaded Third World leaders that Eastern Europe has little to offer as a model of stability and concord” (110)
  • “Although the Soviet intervention in Hungary in 1956 was widely ignored by Third World countries, which were preoccupied with the Anglo-French-Israeli invasion of Egypt, Moscow’s armed suppression of the ‘Prague Spring’ in 1968 and the Soviet pressure on Poland in 1980-81 were widely noted and commented upon in the Third World and did little to improve the image and global reputation of the USSR” (110)
    • NO! India certainly made many open efforts to show its sympathy in the Hungarian cause…so hah.
  • “Most of the Third World realized some time ago that the Stalinist central planning system simply did not work and that what Eastern Europe needed was a program of comprehensive economic reforms. So East European countries, such as Hungary, have indeed undertaken extensive reforms in the past twenty years and proved reasonably successful in implementing them. It is possible that the Hungarian New Economic Mechanism, just like the Yugoslav workers’ council system of thirty years ago, may attract the attention of the LDCs, both communist and noncommunist” (110)
    • aka Hungary is showing signs of liberalization!
  • **”East European Six” –> Hungary is a part of it…is this label limited to this book or is it more commonly used? Just good to find out!**
  • “The topic of East European-Third World relations has attracted little scholarly attention so far because the relationship between Eastern Europe and the Third World in the past thirty years has been mostly marginal, a phenomenon that was not likely to cause many ripples in international politics and economics” (118)
    • AGAIN, another sign that this was the way things were before the period of economic liberalization with both countries!
  • “Left entirely to itself, I would suggest, Eastern Europe would probably maintain its contacts with the Third World, but the nature of these contacts would be quite different and most likely based on rational economic and political calculations” (121)
    • AGAIN, this shows a good scholarly assumption/observation/conclusion about the way that Indo-Hungarian relations were seen at the time –> plus is a clear indicator that this is before Bollywood started functioning as a cultural vehicle