Article: India Trade Liberalization in the 1990s

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Bibliography Information: Krishna, Pravin and Devashish Mitra. “Trade Liberalization, Market Discipline, and Productivity Growth: New Evidence from India.” Journal of Development Economics 56.2 (1998): 447-462. Print.

This article talks about the liberalization policies from 1991 and how they affected India’s shift towards a more deregulated economy…


WoF, Introduction: The Wages of Freedom: Fifty Years of the Indian Nation-State (Partha Chatterjee)

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Chatterjee, Partha ed. Wages of Freedom: Fifty Years of the Indian Nation-State. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.

  • “The combined effect of the activities of the developmental state and the mobilizations carried out through the democratic political process was a rapid widening and deepening of the reach of the state into society. From a long historical view, this would appear to be the most significant achievement of the Nehru era: to lay the institutional and ideological basis for the penetration of the nation-state into domains of social activity previously untouched by the state and into the lives of virtually all sections of the people of India” (9)
  • “The tensions would, however, begin to show in the 1970s when there would occur, under Indira Gandhi in particular, a centralization of the governmental functions in the hands of a politicized bureaucracy and, as a parallel process, a dispersal and fragmentation of political society in which newly mobilized groups would begin to make demands upon the developmental state by using the language of rights and self-representation” (17)

WoF, Chapter 3: Political Strategies of Economic Development (Prabhat Patnaik)

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Chatterjee, Partha ed. Wages of Freedom: Fifty Years of the Indian Nation-State. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.

  • pre-WWI India was export heavy, with an economy focused on developing free-market policies
  • “The strategy of cordoning off the domestic economic space against easy penetration by metropolitan capital, of using the state in general, and the state capitalist sector in particular, both as a stimulant of growth and as a bulwark against metropolitan capital, was one that commanded wide domestic social support” (38)
    • during independence years, this was the general mindset, even going into the 1970s; it as criticized for being “inward looking” (39) but seen to be a way to strengthen the domestic production market
  • with agriculture, which was main department of production, there were huge government subsidies
  • mid 1980s: “The remarkable aspect of the policy of import liberalization of the late 1980s was that it was not necessarily tied in to a larger export effort; its principal immediate thrust was towards producing more goods, luxury goods, for the domestic market” (49)

India/Socialist Trade (from the 1960s)

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This is an article that I found as a marker to see what trade had been like between India and “Socialist countries” (Hungary was one of six or seven in this category), starting from about 1960 through the 1970s. Gary had suggested that I have a starting point reference when talking about how bilateral trade continues to grow today, and so I thought this would be a good resource to have.

Bibliographical Information:

Nayyar, Deepak. “India’s Trade with the Socialist Countries.” World Development 3.5 (1975): 273-298. Print.

Pharmaceutical Bilateral Trade

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Here’s a Google Books link to a good overview article about the pharmaceutical investment/trade between India and Hungary:

Bibliography Information:

Felker, Greg, Shekhar Chaudhuri, and Katalin György. The Pharmaceutical Industry in India and Hungary. Washington DC: The World Bank, 1997. Print.

Updated Research Question…

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Just thought I’d post the research question (and following thesis/argument) as it currently stands:

These historical circumstances raise a compelling question at the forefront of this study: How have shifts in economic policy in India and Hungary led to changes in media production and distribution that in turn have institutionalized Indo-Hungarian cultural exchange? The neoliberal policies from the 1980s transformed the earlier industrial-based relationship between India and Hungary. It heightened the fluidity of contact, broke down governmental barriers that had previously stood in the way. While bilateral trade has certainly existed since the 1950s, waves of economic liberalization have reshaped the way in which media – mainly popular Hindi cinema – functions as a mode of exchange. As Bollywood has changed the way that it approaches the production and distribution processes, it has adopted the role of an intercultural bridge.

Current Argument Framework…WILL CONTINUE THIS!

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So I have to turn in a 20-pg draft by Week 10, approximately two weeks from now…December 1st. Here is the basic structure that I want to follow (right now I have about half of this done):

1. Introduction

-background information etc
-research question
-brief thesis/argument outline

2. Methodology

-short section proposing method of argument and analysis

3. Why Hungary?

-highlighting significance and uniqueness of Indo-Hungarian relations in this context (justifying to the reader why this research project is important or relevant)

a) start of the India-Hungary relations in 1956….is this still something that should go under this heading? Is it better suited for the Historical section?

b) Hungary without a South Asian diaspora; this is a government-driven film conversation

c) Hungary as being a small nation (having to find a different spot for itself in global networks of film production today)

4. What’s in a Name?

-brings up the complexity of the label “Bollywood”, as well as the difference between Hindi cinema and Bollywood

5. Setting the Scene: 1950s

The Golden Age of Hindi Cinema – establish role of Hindi cinema in 1950s, social function etc

Indo-Soviet Relations – summarize blooming interaction; manufacturing-based (sets up the juxtaposition of India’s response to Hungary’s revolt)

Hungary in 1956 –briefly summarize the rebellion, with key figures on both sides

India’s Response – mention official announcements by Nehru, etc; implications for this…maybe mention Kalmar

6. First Exchanges: Bilateral Trade

-this section will briefly develop the main facets of Indo-Hungarian interaction pre-1980s, mainly through industrial trade of steel/metals…and then somehow work in the investment in IT and pharmaceutical?

**I need to figure out a way to make this temporally (but definitely logically) sound….**

7. Economic Shifts: Neoliberalism

Definition – Literature Review on Harvey; point out its benefits/limits

Hungary – how it developed its policies post Communism **NEED to find more articles/text on this**

India – Chatterjee, Bose

8. Earning “Industry” Status

9. Media Exchange: Contemporary Manifestations

10. Hungary Reaps the Benefits

11. The Flow of Media

12. Conclusion

-something absolutely awesome.

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