“Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam” Screenshots

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Hungarian Cast from the movie end credits

Hungarian Production Crew from end credits

Shooting Locations, including Hungary


“Aks” Screenshots

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End credits acknowledgement to Indian Ambassador to Hungary

End credits list of shooting locations, including Hungary

MMIC, Ch 3: Shifting Codes, Dissolving Identities – The Hindi Social Film of the 1950s as Popular Culture (Vasudevan)

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Vasudevan, Ravi, ed. Making Meaning in Indian Cinema. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

  • “My basic premise about the dominant critical discussion of the cinema in this period was that it was related to the formation of an art cinema, that it addressed a (potential) art cinema audience and, in turn, was premised on a notion of social difference” (100)
  • Vasudevan explains that 1950s cinema focused a lot of melodramatic effects and sensational aspects
  • drama was favored over realism in film plots
  • mid 1950s: growing consensus that Hindi films weren’t able to measure up to Western films NOT because of linguistic barriers but rather cinematic standards (102)
  • defining Hindi films in 1950s: “In the Bombay cinema of the 1950s the ‘social’ film, from which I take the illustrations in this article, was the genre which the industry understood to address the issues of modern life. Within these films, and much more widely in the cinema of that time, a number of modes of staging and narrating story events are in evidence” (105)
  • ambiguity in hero’s representation often paralleled real-life issues of identity shifting in post-independence India
  • “The mixture of codes, generic and sensational elements, and a narrative undermining of social identity, makes the social film of the 1950s an imaginary space in which a popular audience of mixed social background were offered a rather fluid system of signs, modes of address and social positions. Industry observers had their particular explanation for this mixture. They believed that the ‘social,’ initially conceived of as a conventionally middle-class genre, had become an omnibus form in which different social groups were being catered to by different elements of the film. One observer noted that, whereas in the 1930s dramatic and social values appealed to the middle and upper middle classes, and stunts and action dramas appealed to workers, in the 1950s a ‘new type of social realism also came to occupy the screen. Actions, thrills, magic and stunts were introduced into the stories to attract the masses'” (113)
    • there was a significant democratization of film production in the 1950s to appeal to a wider audience

MMIC: Introduction (Ravi Vasudevan)

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Vasudevan, Ravi, ed. Making Meaning in Indian Cinema. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

  • “popular film is treated as an entry point for understanding the legitimization of social and political power through narrative forms commanding the widest of social constituencies” (1)
  • “The state as it evolves policies of censorship, taxation and institutional formation, is an influential player in the processes which define the status of cinema as a cultural institution” (6)
  • “It is possible that the success of the Indian cinema in North Africa, the countries of the Middle East, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and China points to a suggestive international constituency for a narrative form addressing the problems associated with modern social and political transformation” (8-9)
  • mid p14: idea of 1950s cinema as moving beyond reality to new idealized society; as a social commentary on how society could develop in a country that was still working through its independence

Article: “Classic and Contemporary” (Tharoor)

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“Classic & Contemporary” – Shashi Tharoor, found listed in GB Ch7

  • “films represent the prime vehicle for the transmission of popular culture and values”
  • Tharoor touches on the idea of Bollywood functioning as an escapist form of entertainment; its ability to be relatable to many diverse audiences
  • mentions the eternal relevance of its themes of love, heroism, national unity, duty, etc
  • also the idea of Indian films as a nostalgia trip for many older Indians (maybe can relate this to the role of the NRI in relation to Bollywood’s globalization?)

Article: “Cine-Patriotism” (Sethi)

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“Cine-Patriotism” by Manisha Sethi, found listed in Ch 7 GB

  • idea of Bollywood reinventing India’s history in a more glorifying way; much more implications when these films/messages are being shared worldwide to a very diverse set of audiences
  • how the Indian hero in many ultra-nationalist Bollywood movies ends up representing the nation in a very violent and masculine way; deliberately confuses real political action and aggressiveness
  • in this way, various aspects of Indian history have become very sensationalized
  • and yet the nation is simultaneously symbolized as being feminine and needing to be saved by the hero
  • even though this genre of Bollywood films isn’t nearly as popular in recent years, it is still important to consider how this category spreads a certain idea of India both in the country and around the world, and how different audiences will interpret these representations in various ways

Article: “Film Culture, Politics, and Industry” (Srinivas)

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“Film Culture, Politics, and Industry” – S.V. Srinivas

-found listed in GB Ch 15

**need to read/summarize/analyze**

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