MSA, Ch 19: Post-Colonial South Asia: State and Economy, Society and Politics 1971-1997

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  • a series of shifts in policy and structure: “opting for more democracy…meant strengthening popular regional leaders at the expense of the centre, a reversal of fortunes that was untenable without substantially modifying both the party and state structure” (222)
  • 1980s: central government was always worried about the regional threats, shifted to using religion-based majoritarian politics (using “Hindu” as the driving force) (227)
  • June 1991 – May 1996: series of economic reforms by Congress to loosen gov controls on markets/business
    • “reformers concentrated on redressing the negative effects of over-intervention by the state in certain sectors and removing the more stifling bureaucratic controls on industry” (229)
    • “Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze have made a powerful case for taking the Indian development debate ‘well beyond liberalization’ to focus on ‘expanding social opportunities'” (229)
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MSA, Ch 18: Post-Colonial South Asia: State and Economy, Society and Politics 1946-1971

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**this book is quite broad and jumps back and forth between issues related to Pakistan and India, so there’s not too much germane material, fyi**

  • partition tainting ideas of success stemming from Independence in 1947
  • series of events tying Partition and Independence events together
  • since the Partition was so traumatic, both Pakistan & India moved to quickly make strong central governments –> this helped to bolster each economy/infrastructure from tensions and outer threats (206)
    • yet by doing this, there was a skewed “center-region” relationship as more (than was necessary, in retrospect) was passed onto the grasp of the central government
  • India: lots of central power/concentration; modeled after the already-established British colonial system
  • 1950s: many conflicts with demands for linguistically-defined boundaries of various states (208-209), especially during PM Nehru’s reign
  • even with ideas of formal democracy, India was still very authoritarian especially in economic matters